Influence of Early Recording and Playing Devices on Musical Sound: FRF Measurements of Horn, Soundbox and Tonearm
* Presenting author
The development of sound recording techniques had dramatic consequences, that were often discussed from the media revolution perspective. Not much attention has been given, however, to understanding the influence of the early recording and playing devices on the musical sound and possibly on the singing practice. On our way to a deeper level of understanding in this matter, the influence of different elements in the chain from musician to listener, passing through recording and reproducing processes, has been objectively assessed.In this paper, the acoustically most relevant parts of a gramophone (soundbox, tonearm and horn) as well as replicas of elements in the recording chain were investigated using frequency transfer function measurements with sweeps. The results confirm the major influence of the soundbox as a bandpass filtering element in both reproducing and recording setups. For the reproducing soundbox, the first three radial modes with major influence have been identified. The horn resonances, as well as resonances introduced by tonearms and ducts, the elements linking horn and soundbox, are responsible for characteristic shapes in the frequency response curves.